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LATEST ARTICLES


contributions to psychedelic scholarship

by Tom Roberts

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Quagmire, Seeking, and Medicine are expensive, so you may want to ask a library to buy them.

Ellens, J. H. and T. Roberts. (Eds. 2015). The Psychedelic Policy Quagmire: Health, Law, Freedom, and Society.

http://www.abc-clio.com/ABC-CLIOCorporate/product.aspx?pc=A4853C

 

Ellens, J. H. (Ed. 2014). Seeking the Sacred with Psychoactive Substances: Chemical Paths to Spirituality and to God. (2 vols).

http://www.abc-clio.com/ABC-CLIOCorporate/product.aspx?pc=A4227C

 

Roberts, T. (2013). The Psychedelic Future of the Mind: How Entheogens Are Enhancing Cognition, Boosting Intelligence, and Raising Values

http://www.innertraditions.com/the-psychedelic-future-of-the-mind.html

Roberts, T. (Ed. [2001] 2012). Spiritual Growth with Entheogens: Psychoactive Sacramentals and Human Transformation.

http://www.innertraditions.com/spiritual-growth-with-entheogens.html

 

Winkelman, M. and T. Roberts. (Eds. 2007). Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogenic Substances as Treatments (2 vols).

http://www.abc-clio.com/Praeger/product.aspx?pc=D6389C

 

Roberts, T. (2006). Psychedelic Horizons: Snow White, Immune System, Multistate Mind, Enlarging Education.

http://books.imprint.co.uk/book/?GCOI=71157100298200

 

Roberts, T. and P. J. Hruby. (Eds. 1995-2001). Religion and Psychoactive Sacraments: An Entheogen Chrestomathy. Online.

Et alia — chapters, papers, book reviews, slides, syllabuses, Internet, etc.

www.niu.academia.edu/ThomasRoberts

What is the relationship between psychedelics and meditation? Experientially, they seem to cover similar ground and have significant overlap, suggesting they may be two different vehicles to get to the same place. At the same time, there are important ways in which these techniques can complement and sup
port each other.

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Meditation and psychedelics are united in the mystical experience. This is a state of consciousness that involves the transcendence of time and space, a sense of sacredness, and unity — often, this includes the collapse of previously established dualities, such as between self-other, inner-outer, and sacred-profane. These experiences, which can come about spontaneously or as the result of a contemplative discipline such as meditation, have been described by mystics and experienced meditators for millennia.

In The Doors of Perception, Aldous Huxley reported having such an experience after ingesting mescaline. As  soon as he published this influential report, religious scholars began debating whether this could be considered a true mystical experience. Illumination could come as a gift of grace or as the result of years of discipline, but to some the idea that such an experience could be induced by ingesting a minute amount of a compound seemed to cheapen and detract from the experience.

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Regular doses of acid have become the creativity enhancer of choice for some professionals

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Let’s call him “Ken.” Ken is 25, has a master’s degree from Stanford and works for a tech startup in San Francisco, doing a little bit of everything: hardware and software design, sales and business development. Recently, he has discovered a new way to enhance his productivity and creativity, and it’s not Five Hour Energy or meditation.
Ken is one of a growing number of professionals who enjoy taking “microdoses” of psychedelics – in his free time and, occasionally, at the office. “I had an epic time,” he says at the end of one such day. “I was making a lot of sales, talking to a lot of people, finding solutions to their technical problems.”

A microdose is about a tenth of the normal dose – around 10 micrograms of LSD, or 0.2-0.5 grams of mushrooms. The dose is subperceptual – enough, says Rick Doblin, founder and executive director of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, “to feel a little bit of energy lift, a little bit of insight, but not so much that you are tripping.”

At a conference on psychedelic research in 2011, James Fadiman, author of The Psychedelic Explorer’s Guide, introduced microdosing to the popular discourse when he presented the results of survey data he had collected from self-reporting experimenters. Ever since, he says, the number of people describing their experiences – or asking for advice – has been on a steady rise.

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A look at the psychoactive brew that brings users a spiritual payoff for their “work”

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The shaman, a North American who had trained in South America for more than a dozen years, took a seat at the front and led the group through a conversation about what to expect.

Stay with your breath, he advised. There’s no talking, no touching. Purging in any direction is a distinct possibility. The bucket is your friend.

He dimmed the lights, and after intoning a prayer, poured a foul-smelling brown liquid into a series of cups. One by one, all 18 visitors brought it to their lips and drank.

For 40 minutes, the yurt fell silent. Then the shaman began to sing.

Around the same time, the drink took effect. Some who consumed it cried, others belched, several fled for the outhouse. Many reached for their buckets and vomited.

For the next four to five hours, those in the room did what many call “the work.” Some took trips back into their childhood memories. Others had visions: of nature, of healers, of fireworks. Afterward, they would say that the tea offered an opportunity to look at their problems in a new light.

“It was one of the most beautiful experiences of my life,” says Fred, a kind-eyed, gray-bearded man in his 50s.

Kim and her husband, Josh, have organized about 50 of these gatherings since the summer of 2010. In that time, they’ve seen hundreds of people have an experience like Fred’s.

All three asked that their real names not be used out of fear of the law. Though no one in the United States’ underground network has yet been prosecuted, the liquid falls into the category of Schedule I controlled substances.

The risks scare her, but the way Kim sees it, she doesn’t have a choice.

“My life is not my own anymore,” Kim says. “If that were to mean standing up in the face of legal action, I’d do it…. After seeing how much this helps people — truly heals people — I’d do anything.”

The psychoactive brew goes by many names.William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg called it Yage. In Brazil, it’s known as Hoasca. Other aliases include the Spirit Vine, the Vine of the Soul, and the Vine of the Dead.

Its most common name is ayahuasca. The indigenous cultures of the Amazon have brewed the plant concoction, and its naturally occurring dose of the hallucinogen DMT, for centuries.

In recent years, the West has caught on. The tea cropped up in the Jennifer Aniston flickWanderlust and the Showtime series Weeds; proponents include everyone from Sting to The Howard Stern Show‘s Robin Quivers. One ayahuasca expert estimates that on any given night, between 50 and 100 ayahuasca groups are in session in New York City alone.

Some of the same doctors and researchers who have, in recent years, gotten FDA approval for breakthrough studies involving MDMA and psilocybin mushrooms are now turning their attention to ayahuasca. Preliminary work suggests the brew could help treat depression, chronic addiction, and fears of mortality.

People with less-defined diagnoses, but a hunger for something missing, say ayahuasca offers something ineffable: compassion, connectedness, spirituality.

“Ayahuasca is penetrating American society, and its highly successful people, way more than any other psychedelic,” says Rick Doblin, the head of MAPS, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, a nonprofit research association based in Santa Cruz, California. “The number of people who have had incredible experiences with ayahuasca, if they could all surface in the public sphere at the same time, it would be absolutely astonishing.”

In a greenhouse at the University of MinnesotaDennis McKenna walks past the cacao (chocolate) and the Punica (pomegranate), and strides straight to the back corner, where the vines of the plant Banisteriopsis have twisted around each other — and nearby electrical cords — to reach the room’s rafters.

McKenna, a white-bearded professor wearing wire glasses and a denim shirt tucked into his jeans, points at one of the younger vines, a supple green stem the width of a pencil.

“This is nothing,” he says, explaining that mature plants can reach 1,500 feet and weigh several tons. “Usually, the part you use is the thickness of a finger.”

McKenna would know: He has drunk ayahuasca several hundred times since 1981. An ethnobotanist and ethnopharmacologist by trade, McKenna first tangled with psychedelics as a teen coming of age in the ’60s. He tried everything from LSD to jimson weed, but never ayahuasca: There was none.

“It was this rare, legendary thing,” McKenna remembers.

The first record of ayahuasca arrived in the West in 1908, thanks to the British botanist Richard Spruce, who mostly described lots of vomiting. Harvard ethnobotanist Richard Evan Schultesfollowed up a half-century later with the first academic account. Around the same time, Beat author William Burroughs wrote letters depicting his quest for the tea to Allen Ginsberg, collected in 1963 as The Yage Letters. But in the Western literature, there wasn’t much more than that.

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